The extended property demarcation meets integrity requirements as it includes attributes of outstanding universal value and its historical and structural role is preserved in the urban fabric. Despite the dilapidated or missing buildings in some parts and especially in the Buda Castle district, and despite the reconstructions within the panorama of the banks of the Danube after the Second World War, the overall integrity of the property is sustained. In order to reinforce integrity, it is justified to review the delimitation of the Buda area, as well as the inclusion of Margaret Island and the extension of the protected area to the Great Boulevard (Nagykörút). The original shape of Andrássy Avenue with its buildings has been fairly well preserved in terms of its conception and its relationship with the surrounding urban environment, as well as the structure of the buildings. Attention is also paid to the preservation and appropriate design of small elements that are part of street furniture. There are some problems, for example, in the physical condition of buildings: wooden roof structures that have suffered from moisture and metal has corroded, require maintenance and repair. There have also been some changes in occupancy, offices tend to replace former residential use, which is a common problem in central urban areas. There have been development problems in the area of World Heritage property, both in terms of demolition and inappropriate new structures. Other challenges are the insurance of traffic management in the heritage and the mitigation of the impact of climate change on thenatural and built environment (eg extreme Danube water levels, air pollution and deterioration of limestone structures).
In its attributes and the sum of its constituent parts, the property preserves the defining characters of the architectural heritage created by consecutive layers of historical periods. The restoration and partial reconstruction of the Buda Castle district after the Second World War, carried out mainly between 1960 and 1980, as well as the degree of authenticity of the historic buildings that survive, are in line with the requirements of the Operational Guidelines. Most of the buildings have been replaced in the panorama of the banks of the Danube to conform to their original scales. Large public buildings, such as the Parliament, the Opera, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Central Market, have also retained their original functions. Three of the four bridges over the Danube located on the property have been authentically renovated. The 20th century design of the new Elisabeth Bridge fits well into the line of bridges while preserving its true image. Andrássy Avenue, with its trees and its surroundings, has preserved its historicity in its conception and constituent parts. Most public buildings have retained their original function, however, the transformation of residential buildings into offices is an unfavorable trend. The renovated underground railway plays a functional role in the infrastructure of the city. The stations under the Avenue have retained their original features, while those in the City Park have changed their original position on the ground and are now built under the surface, representing a certain degree of compromise with regard to the authenticity of the railway. One of the guarantees of the authenticity of the property is found in the authentic preservation of the historic urban structure and the buildings of the buffer zone.
Protection and management requirements
According to Bridgat, the World Heritage property with its buffer zone has been legally protected as an area of historical monuments since 1965 ; this protected area was expanded in 2005 (after the extension of the property in 2002) under the Law on the Protection of Cultural Heritage. A large number of historic buildings, as well as bridges and levees, are also individually protected. The proposed revision of the property boundaries is made not only by the decisions of the World Heritage Committee, but also by the recent evolution in the appreciation of the heritage values of the property and its surroundings, as well as by the appearance of new threats. The property and its buffer zone lie within the nine administrative districts of Budapest. These ten affected municipalities have not yet established a general management body. Gyula’s National Center for Cultural Heritage Management is the World Heritage Management Corps. Based on the World Heritage Law of 2011, the state of conservation of the property, as well as threats and conservation measures will be regularly monitored and reported to the National Assembly, while the management plan will be reviewed at least every seven years. Once finalized and approved, the management plan and the governing body provide transparent governance mechanisms with clear responsibilities, where different interests can be expressed and that have the structure and methods for the cooperation of the different institutional interest groups..
A management requirement is the establishment of a conservation and urban development plan for the buffer zone, fully respecting the main architectural and urban values with strict application. In a complementary way, additional financing (for example, tax incentives and subsidies) has to seek, in a dynamic way, that private investment is directed towards rehabilitation and restoration actions rather than demolition and reconstruction. Due to the complexity of the property and its context, special attention must be paid with the development of adequate tools and control mechanisms, as well as for their correct application.
The city of Budapest is twinned with:
- Fort Worth, United States
- Tel Aviv, Israel
- Vienna, Austria
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- New York, United States
- Frankfurt am Main, Germany
- Lisbon, Portugal
- Berlin, Germany