General information about Ethiopia
The official name is the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Jtyop’iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik). Located in the northeastern part of Africa, it occupies part of the Horn of Africa. The area is 1127.1 thousand km2, the population is 67.7 million people. (2002 estimate). The working language of the federal government is Amharic. The capital is Addis Ababa (2.7 million people, 2003). Public holiday – Peace and Democracy Day May 28 (since 1991). The monetary unit is birr (equal to 100 cents).
Member of the UN (since 1945), AU (since 1963), Non-Aligned Movement, etc.
Geography of Ethiopia
According to bridgat, Ethiopia is located between 38° east longitude and 8° north latitude. Ethiopia is a continental state bordered to the west by Sudan, to the north by Eritrea, to the east by Djibouti and Somalia, and to the south by Kenya. Ethiopia differs from other countries in Africa by the greatest variety of landscape. The highest peak is Ras-Dashen (4620 m), the most significant depression is the Danakil depression 125 m, Lake Assale 116-120 m below sea level. Among the rivers of the Nile basin, the main one is the Blue Nile, or Abbay (800 km across Ethiopia), as well as Tekeze, Baro, Akobo. The rivers of the Indian Ocean are Wabi-Shebelle and Genale. Rivers of internal flow Awash and Omo. The largest lake in Ethiopia is Tana (approx. 3100 km2), shallow (4-7 m), height above sea level 1786 m, natural reservoir-regulator in the upper reaches of the Blue Nile. The country is characterized by the relationship between the composition of soils and altitudinal zones. In the most humid areas of the southwest there are dark red humus soils of tropical forests, at an altitude of 1100-1600 m there are mountain dark red humus soils, at an altitude of 1500-2500 m there are fertile soils of volcanic origin. In the Afar depression (Danakil) there are solonchak soils, in the Ogaden there are red-brown soils of dry savannahs.
All vegetation zones are represented in Ethiopia: from deserts and tropical rainforests to subalpine and alpine zones. The fauna of Ethiopia is uniquely diverse, there are endemic species of animals. The most diverse species of birds, in addition to continental, regional and endemic birds, birds from Europe and Asia winter here. In inland waters there are up to 20 species of commercial fish. The climate of Ethiopia belongs to the equatorial-tropical type. Altitude zones influence the climate. The Afar depression is one of the hottest places on the planet, the highlands are characterized by frosts in the winter months and snowfalls in areas above 3700 m. The difference between day and night temperatures is quite large. The season of small rains is March-May, the season of big rains is June-September. Anomalies in the precipitation regime are not uncommon: their excess, causing floods, or their deficiency, leading to droughts,
The bowels of the country are not sufficiently explored. There are deposits of copper ores, barite, diatomite, potassium salts, gold and natural gas. Industrial reserves of tantalum and phosphate. Coal deposits and oil-bearing rocks have been discovered. Mountain rivers are Ethiopia’s huge energy potential, which is just beginning to be developed.
According to the 1984 census, there were more than 42 million people in Ethiopia (including Eritrea). Amhara – ok. 12 million people and about the same number of oromos. In the beginning. 2000s The Oromo are the largest ethnic group. Population density 58.4 people. per 1 km2. Population growth 2.64%. Birth rate 44.31%, mortality 18.04%, infant mortality 98.63 people. per 1000 newborns. Life expectancy is 44.21 years (men 43.36, women 45.09). Urban population 13-15% (2001). Economically active population – 24,395,916. Sex and age composition (2002): 0-14 years – 47.2% (men 16,098,191, women 15,879,065), 15-64 years – 50% (men 17,005,387, women 16 801 536), 65 years and older – 2.8% (men 854 023, women 1 034 829). Competently 35.5% of the population over 15 years old (1995).
Ethnic composition: Oromo – 30-50%, Amhara – 20-25%, Tigrays – 4-6%, Gurage, Sidamo, Uolaito, Somalis – 3% each, Tigris and Afars – each approx. 0.6% and many other ethnic groups. The most widely spoken languages are Amharic, Orom, Tigray, Gurage, and English.
45% of the population are Muslims and approx. 40% belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. There is a significant number of Evangelical Protestant and Roman Catholic parishes. Adheres to traditional beliefs 5-15% of the population.