Serbia and Montenegro is located mainly on the Balkan Peninsula, a small part north of the Danube and Sava is part of Central Europe. It extends from north to south between 46°11′ and 41°50′ north latitude, from east to west between 18°26′ and 23°00′ east longitude.
From the southwest it is washed by the Adriatic Sea. The coastline is 293.5 km, of which 52 km are beaches. The coast is winding, the largest bay is Bokokotorskaya, which is a convenient harbor.
From the sea it borders with Italy, has land borders in the west with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, in the north with Hungary, in the east with Romania and Bulgaria, in the south with Macedonia and Albania.
Natural conditions are extremely diverse.
According to the nature of the relief, it is divided into two parts – the northern plain and the southern mountainous (the area ratio is approximately 1:3).
The flat north is occupied by the southern part of the Middle Danube lowland, 100-150 m above sea level. Only in two places do low crystalline massifs rise: Fruška Gora (539 m) and Vrsacka Kula (640 m). The mountainous part is divided into five regions: the hilly Šumadija in the north, the East Serbian Mountains in the east, the Serbian Highlands in the center, the outskirts of the Bosnian Mountains in the west, the Dinaric Highlands and the Montenegrin karst plateau in the southwest. Numerous ranges alternate with small valleys of mountain rivers and tectonic basins. The most extensive are Kosovo and Metokhi. 45 mountain peaks have a height of more than 2000 m. The highest point in Serbia is Mount Jeravica (2656 m), in Montenegro – Mount Bobotov Kuk (2522 m). Large lake – Skadar, on the border with Albania (370 km2).
Most of the rivers belong to the Black Sea basin. The main ones are the Danube (the length of the territory and borders is 588 km), its tributaries the Sava, Tisza and Morava, as well as the Drina, which forms a significant part of the western border, the Ibar and Lim. Two large canal systems have been built – Banatskaya (518 km) and Bachskaya (421 km).
According to Bridgat, the climate in most of the territory is temperate continental. On the plains and in hilly areas, the average temperature in January is from -1 to -2°C, in July + 22-23°C, precipitation is 500-1000 mm per year. In the mountainous regions, summers are milder, winters are more severe, precipitation is plentiful (1500-2500 mm), snow cover lasts for several months. The climate of the Adriatic coast is Mediterranean subtropical with hot, dry, long summers and mild rainy winters. The average temperature in January is +10°С, in July +27°С, precipitation is up to 1500 mm per year.
Soils in the Middle Danube Lowland are represented mainly by chernozems. Brown forest soils dominate in mountainous Serbia, and mountain-meadow soils dominate in the upper belt of mountains. Extensive karst areas in Montenegro are devoid of soil cover, and red soils have formed in depressions and on the Adriatic coast.
The vegetation cover in the flat north is dominated by steppe grasses, in the mountainous part – forests (beech, oak). The upper belt of mountains is covered with mountain grasses. Mediterranean oak is found in the Dinaric Highlands and on the Montenegrin karst plateau. On the Adriatic coast – thickets of evergreen subtropical shrubs and trees (maquis, strawberry tree, myrtle, laurel, juniper), hard grasses. Forests cover approx. 1/4 of the country.
The fauna on the plains is represented by voles, ground squirrels, hares; deer, chamois, wild goat, fox, wild boar, lynx live in the mountains. Diverse world of birds. On the rocky slopes – lizards and snakes. Rivers, lakes and coastal sea waters are rich in fish (carp, pike, perch, trout, eel, sardines, etc.).
Among minerals, lignite deposits, deposits of oil and natural gas, copper ore, bauxite and polymetallic ores, antimony, and magnesite are of the greatest importance. Significant hydropower resources, especially the Danube.
An important part of the raw material resources of Serbia and Montenegro is in the autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija, removed from its jurisdiction (deposits of lead-zinc, iron-nickel ores, magnesite, lignite).